Operator precedence tableΒΆ

The following table summarizes the operator precedence of Python operators in this book, from highest precedence (most binding) to lowest precedence (least binding). Operators in the same box have the same precedence. Unless syntax is explicitly given, operators are binary. Operators in the same box group left to right (except for exponentiation, which groups from right to left). This is many of the entries from the complete Python table at https://docs.python.org/3/reference/expressions.html#operator-precedence.

In the row for comparisons, membership tests, and identity tests, all have the same precedence and have a left-to-right chaining feature; for example 3 < x <= y != z.

Operator Description
(expressions...), [expressions...], {key: value...}, {expressions...} Binding or tuple display, list display, dictionary display, set display
x[index], x[index:index], x(arguments...), x.attribute Subscription, slicing, call, attribute reference
** Exponentiation (groups right to left)
-x Negation
*, /, //, % Multiplication, real and integer division, remainder
+, - Addition and subtraction
in, not in, is, is not, <, <=, >, >=, !=, == Comparisons, including membership tests and identity tests
not x Boolean NOT
and Boolean AND
or Boolean OR
Next Section - Copyright Notice